Korea is believed to be the first country in Asia that acupuncture spread to outside of China. 29 Within Korea there is a legend that acupuncture was developed by emperor Dan gun, skin is sterilized and needles are inserted, frequently with a plastic guide tube. Tin, copper, gold and silver are also possibilities, though they are considered less likely, or to have been used in fewer cases. 29 :69 If acupuncture was practice during the Chang dynasty 1766 to 1122 BC, organic materials like thorns, sharpened bones, or bamboo may have been used. 29 :70 Once methods for producing steel were discovered, it would replace all other materials, since it could be used to create a very fine, but sturdy needles. 29 :74 Gwei-djen and Needham noted that acupuncture practices as well. 27 China and Korea sent “medical missionaries” that spread traditional Chinese medicine to Japan, starting around 219 AD. Needles may be manipulated in various ways, including spinning, are still unable to find a shred of evidence to support the existence of meridians or C'i”, 21 “The traditional principles of acupuncture are deeply flawed, as there is no evidence at all to demonstrate the existence of C'i or meridians” 22 and “As yin and yang, acupuncture points and meridians are not a reality, but merely the product of an ancient Chinese philosophy”. 23 Tyne, D.; Shenker, N. The.xceptions to this conclusion included the use of acupuncture during embryo transfer as an adjunct to in vitro fertilization. 138 A 2013 Cochran review found low to moderate evidence that acupuncture improves pain and stiffness in treating people with fibromyalgia compared with no treatment and standard care. 139 A 2012 review found “there is insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia.” 74 A 2010 systematic review found a small pain relief effect that was not apparently discernible from bias; acupuncture is not a recommendable treatment for the management of fibromyalgia on the basis of this review. 140 A 2012 review found that the effectiveness of acupuncture to treat rheumatoid arthritis is “sparse and inconclusive.” 74 A 2005 Cochran review concluded that acupuncture use to treat rheumatoid arthritis “has no effect on ear, CPR, pain, patient's global assessment, number of swollen joints, number of tender joints, general health, disease activity and reduction of analgesics.” 141 A 2010 overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture in the treatment of most rheumatic conditions, with the exceptions of osteoarthritis, low back pain, and lateral elbow pain. 142 A 2014 overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses found that the evidence does not demonstrate acupuncture helps reduce the rates of death or disability after a stroke or improve other aspects of stroke recovery, such as post stroke motor dysfunction, but the evidence suggests it may help with post stroke neurological impairment and dysfunction such as dysphagia, which would need to be confirmed with future rigorous studies. 143 A 2012 review found evidence of benefit for acupuncture combined with exercise in treating shoulder pain after stroke. 144 A 2010 systematic review found that acupuncture was not effective as a treatment for functional recovery after a stroke. 145 A 2012 overview of systematic reviews found inconclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of acupuncture for stroke. 146 A 2015 systematic review found limited evidence that the method of Xingnao Kaiqiao needling had a better effect than Xingnao Kaiqiao alone or combined with other treatments in reducing disability rate for ischemic stroke, and that the long-term effect was better than traditional acupuncture or combination treatment. 147 A 2014 meta-analysis found tentative evidence for acupuncture in cerebral infarction, a type of ischemic stroke, but the authors noted the trials reviewed were often of poor quality. 148 A 2008 Cochran review found that evidence was insufficient to draw any conclusion about the effect of acupuncture on dysphagia after acute stroke. 149 A 2006 Cochran review found no clear evidence for acupuncture on sub acute or chronic stroke. 150 A 2005 Cochran review found no clear evidence of benefit for acupuncture on acute stroke. 151 A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that acupuncture was “associated with a significant reduction in sleep disturbances in women experiencing menopause related sleep disturbances.” 152 For the following conditions, the Cochran Collabouration or other reviews have concluded there is no strong evidence of benefit: alcohol dependence, 153 angina pectoris, 154 ankle sprain, 155 156 Alzheimer's disease, 157 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 158 159 autism, 160 161 asthma, 162 163 bell's palsy, 164 165 traumatic brain injury, 166 carpal tunnel syndrome, 167 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 168 cardiac arrhythmias, 169 cerebral haemorrhage, 170 cocaine dependence, 171 constipation, 172 depressions, 173 174 diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 175 drug detoxification, 176 177 dry eye, 178 primary dysmenorrhoea, 179 enuresis, 180 endometriosis, 181 epilepsy, 182 erectile dysfunction, 183 essential hypertension, 184 glaucoma, 185 gynaecological conditions except possibly fertility and nausea/vomiting, 186 hot flashes, 187 188 189 190 hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, 191 insomnia, 192 193 194 inductions of childbirth, 195 irritable bowel syndrome, 196 labour pain, 197 198 Acupuncture lumbar spinal stenos is, 199 major depressive disorders in pregnant women, 200 musculoskeletal disorders of the extremities, 201 myopia, 202 obesity, 203 204 obstetrical conditions, 205 Parkinson's disease, 206 207 poly cystic ovary syndrome, 208 premenstrual syndrome, 209 preoperative anxiety, 210 opioid addiction, 211 212 restless legs syndrome, 213 schizophrenia, 214 sensorineural hearing loss, 215 smoking cessation, 216 stress urinary incontinence, 217 acute stroke, 218 stroke rehabilitation, 219 temporomandibular joint dysfunction, 220 221 tennis elbow, 222 labor induction, 223 tinnitus, 224 225 uraemic itching, 226 uterine fibroids, 227 vascular dementia, 228 and whiplash . 229 A 2010 overview of systematic reviews found that moxibustion was effective for several conditions but the primary studies were of poor quality, so there persists ample uncertainty, which limits the conclusiveness of their findings. 230 A 2012 systematic review suggested that cupping therapy seems to be effective for herpes Foster and various other conditions but due to the high risk of publication bias, larger studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. 231 Acupuncture is generally safe when administered by an experienced, appropriately trained practitioner using clean-needle technique and sterile single-use needles. 16 17 When improperly delivered it can cause adverse effects. 16 Accidents and infections are associated with infractions of sterile technique or neglect on the part of the practitioner. 17 To reduce the risk of serious adverse events after acupuncture, acupuncturists should be trained sufficiently. 10 People with serious spinal disease, such as cancer or infection, are not good candidates for acupuncture. 2 Contraindications to acupuncture conditions that should not be treated with acupuncture include coagulopathy disorders e.g. haemophilia and advanced liver disease, warfarin use, severe psychiatric disorders e.g. psychosis, and skin infections or skin trauma e.g. burns. 2 Further, electro acupuncture should be avoided at the spot of implanted electrical devices such as pacemakers. 2 A 2011 systematic review of systematic reviews internationally and without language restrictions found that serious complications following acupuncture continue to be reported. 10 Between 2000 and 2009, ninety-five cases of serious adverse events, including five deaths, were reported. 10 Many such events are not inherent to acupuncture but are due to malpractice of acupuncturists. 10 This might be why such complications have not been reported in surveys of adequately-trained acupuncturists. 10 Most such reports originate from Asia, which may reflect the large number of treatments performed there or a relatively higher number of poorly trained Asian acupuncturists. 10 Many serious adverse events were reported from developed countries. 10 These included Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, and the US. 10 The number of adverse effects reported from the UK appears particularly unusual, which may indicate less under-reporting in the UK than other countries. 10 transdermal electrical nerve stimulation TENS masquerading as acupuncture”. 57 Fire needle acupuncture also known as fire needling is a technique which involves quickly inserting a flame-heated needle into areas on the body. 58 Sonopuncture is a stimulation of the body similar to acupuncture using sound instead of needles. 59 This may be done using purpose-built transducers to direct a narrow ultrasound beam to a depth of 6–8 centimetres at acupuncture meridian points on the body. 60 Alternatively, tuning forks or other sound emitting devices are used. 61 Acupuncture point injection is the injection of various substances such as drugs, vitamins or herbal extracts into acupoints. 62 Auriculotherapy, commonly known as ear acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, or auriculoacupuncture, is considered to date back to ancient China.
ACM.practitioners.isagree among themselves about how to diagnose 51 The skill level of the acupuncturist may influence how painful the needle insertion is, and a sufficiently skilled practitioner may be able to insert the needles without causing any pain. 50 De-qi Chinese : 得气; pin yin : d q; “arrival of qi” refers to a sensation of numbness, distension, or electrical tingling at the needling site which might radiate along the corresponding meridian . The Imperial Medical Service and the Imperial Medical College, which both supported acupuncture, became more established and created medical colleges in every province. 29 :129 The public was also exposed to stories about royal figures being cured of their diseases by prominent acupuncturists. 29 :129–135 By time The Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion was published during the Ming dynasty 1368–1644 AD, most of the acupuncture practices used in the modern era had been established. 27 By the end of the Song dynasty 1279 AD, acupuncture had lost much of its status in China. 273 It became rarer in the following centuries, and was associated with less prestigious professions like alchemy, shamanism, midwifery and moxibustion. 274 transdermal electrical nerve stimulation TENS masquerading as acupuncture”. 57 Fire needle acupuncture also known as fire needling is a technique which involves quickly inserting a flame-heated needle into areas on the body. 58 Sonopuncture is a stimulation of the body similar to acupuncture using sound instead of needles. 59 This may be done using purpose-built transducers to direct a narrow ultrasound beam to a depth of 6–8 centimetres at acupuncture meridian points on the body. 60 Alternatively, tuning forks or other sound emitting devices are used. 61 Acupuncture point injection is the injection of various substances such as drugs, vitamins or herbal extracts into acupoints. 62 Auriculotherapy, commonly known as ear acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, or auriculoacupuncture, is considered to date back to ancient China.
Japanese.eprint by Suharaya Heisuke acupuncture practiceds as well. 27 China and Korea sent “medical missionaries” that spread traditional Chinese medicine to Japan, starting around 219 AD. Diagrams of the flow of spiritual energy, for example, acupuncture”. David Ramey, no single “method or theory” was ever predominantly adopted as the standard. 271 At the time, scientific knowledge of medicine was not yet developed, especially because in China dissection of the deceased was forbidden, preventing the development of basic anatomical knowledge. 27 It is not certain when specific acupuncture points were introduced, but the autobiography of lien Chhio from around 400–500 BC references inserting nneedles at designated areas. 29 Brian Sue believed there was a single acupuncture point at the top of one's skull that he called the point “of the hundred meetings.” 29 :83 all the ancient materials that could have been used for acupuncture and which often produce archaeological evidence, such as sharpened bones, bamboo or stones, were also used for other purposes. 29 An article in Rheumatology said that the absence of any mention of acupuncture in documents found in the tomb of Ma-Wang-Dui from 198 BC suggest that acupuncture was not practice by that time. 27 Several and sometimes conflicting belief systems emerged regarding acupuncture. Thinner.eedles may be flexible in China repeatedly, depending on the country's political leadership and the favour of rationalism or Western medicine. 27 Acupuncture spread first to Korea in the 6th century AD, then to Japan through medical missionaries, 29 and then to Europe, starting with France. 27 In the 20th century, as it spread to the United States and Western countries, the spiritual elements of acupuncture that conflict with Western beliefs were abandoned in favour of tapping needles into nerves. 27 30 31 One type of acupuncture needle Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine. 2 It is commonly used for pain relief, 10 11 though it is also used to treat a wide range of conditions. 4 The majority of people who seek out acupuncture do so for musculoskeletal problems, including low back pain, shoulder stiffness, and knee pain. 32 Acupuncture is generally only used in combination with other forms of treatment. 12 For example, American Society of anaesthesiologists states it may be considered in the treatment for non-specific, non-inflammatory low back pain only in conjunction with conventional therapy. 33 Acupuncture is the insertion in the skin of thin needles. 3 According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Mayo Clinic, a typical session entails lying still while approximately five to twenty needles are inserted; for the majority of cases, the needles will be left in place for ten to twenty minutes. 34 It can be associated with the application of heat, pressure, or laser light . 3 Classically, acupuncture is individualized and based on philosophy and intuition, and not on scientific research. 35 There is also a non-invasive therapy developed in early 20th century Japan using an elaborate set of “needles” for the treatment of children shōnishin or shōnihari. 36 37 Clinical practice varies depending on the country. 9 38 A comparison of the average number of patients treated per hour found significant differences between China 10 and the United States 1.2. 39 Chinese herbs are often used. 40 There is a diverse range of acupuncture approaches, involving different philosophies. 8 Although various different techniques of acupuncture practice have emerged, the method used in traditional Chinese medicine ACM seems to be the most widely adopted in the US. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves needle insertion, moxibustion, and cupping therapy, 16 and may be accompanied by other procedures such as feeling the pulse and other parts of the body and examining the tongue. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves the belief that a “life force” qi circulates within the body in lines called meridians. 41 The main methods practice in the UK are ACM and Western medical acupuncture. 42 The term Western medical acupuncture is used to indicate an adaptation of ACM-based acupuncture which focuses less on ACM. 41 43 The Western medical acupuncture approach involves using acupuncture after a medical diagnosis. 41 Limited research has compared the contrasting acupuncture systems used in various countries for determining different acupuncture points and thus there is no defined standard for acupuncture points. 44 In traditional acupuncture, the acupuncturist decides which points to treat by observing and questioning the patient to make a diagnosis according to the tradition used.